Toast the nuts in a small skillet over medium heat, stirring frequently, until just golden and fragrant, about 5 minutes; set aside.
Add the garlic to the skillet and toast over medium heat, shaking the pan occasionally, until fragrant. Let the garlic cool slightly, then peel and chop.
Place the basil in a heavy-duty 1 gallon zipper-lock plastic bag. Pound the bag with the flat side of a meat pounder or a rolling pin until all the leaves are bruised.
Process the nuts, garlic, basil, oil, and salt in a food processor until smooth, stopping as necessary to scrape down the sides of the bowl, about one minute. Stir in the parmesan cheese, and then season with pepper to taste.